India is developing a novel Earth system model aimed at enhancing Climate forecast accuracy and monitoring the impacts of the climate crisis.

Earth System Model 

It is open-source software that is developed by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology and the Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR).


  • To improve climate forecasts and predict climate impacts in India and globally.
  • To provide reliable future projections of global and regional climate, including Indian monsoon rainfall.
  • Integration of various components of the Earth system to estimate climate under different conditions.

Key Points:

  • Expected completion by 2025.
  • It is designed to integrate Earth system components interaction: atmosphere, ocean, land, ice, and biosphere.
  • Based on numerical weather prediction and data assimilation.
  • Will facilitate long-term climate studies.
  • Will generate reliable future projections of global and regional climate, especially Indian monsoon rainfall.
  • Incorporates components from the Climate Forecast System (CFS) by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP, USA).
  • Aim to provide policy-relevant information based on robust scientific analysis and assessments.
  • Recognizes the complexity of climate change impacts in the Indian subcontinent, including the influence of the Indian monsoon and geographical features like the Himalayas and the Indian Ocean.


• A total of ₹192.28 crores has been allocated for the development of the climate forecasting system under the Monsoon Convection, Clouds, and Climate Change (MC4) sub-scheme.

  • The MC4 sub-scheme focuses on researching and understanding the dynamics of monsoon convection, clouds, and their influence on climate change.


  • Enhances India’s capability in climate modeling.
  • Provides valuable data for impact assessment studies.
  • Helps quantify uncertainties in regional climate projections.
  • Complements global perspectives provided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports with regional insights.

Also Read :

Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency (GACERE)