Current context:

 Cochin International Airport Limited (CIAL) in Kerala has partnered with Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) to establish a green hydrogen production facility within its premises.

About current context:

  • Cochin International Airport Limited (CIAL) will become the first global airport operator to have a hydrogen power generation facility on its premises.
  • The plant agreement was signed in Thiruvananthapuram, with Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan, who is also the ex-officio Chairman of CIAL, present.

What is Green Hydrogen?

  • Green hydrogen, produced through electrolysis, is a renewable energy source that uses electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen, unlike conventional methods reliant on fossil fuels.

Here are some key points about green hydrogen:

  • Clean Energy: Green hydrogen is considered a clean fuel because its production emits no carbon dioxide (CO₂). It can play a crucial role in achieving net-zero emissions economies.
  • Renewable Energy Integration: By utilizing surplus renewable energy (when the sun shines or the wind blows), green hydrogen production helps store and balance the intermittent nature of renewables.
  • Long-Distance Transport: Hydrogen-based fuels derived from green hydrogen can be transported over long distances, bridging regions with abundant energy resources to energy-hungry areas thousands of kilometers away.

Global Momentum and Initiatives

  • The Green Hydrogen Catapult: This United Nations initiative aims to accelerate the adoption of green hydrogen by increasing the capacity of green electrolysers from 25 gigawatts (GW) to 45 GW by 2027.
  • European Commission’s Legislative Proposals: The European Union is taking steps to decarbonize its gas market by promoting the uptake of renewable and low-carbon gases, including hydrogen.
  • United Arab Emirates (UAE): The UAE aims to capture a significant share of the global low-carbon hydrogen market by 2030.

Shades of Hydrogen: Grey, Blue, and Green

  • Grey Hydrogen: Produced from natural gas through steam methane reforming, it is the most common but carbon-intensive form of hydrogen.
  • Blue Hydrogen: Also derived from natural gas, but with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology to reduce emissions.
  • Green Hydrogen: The star of the show! Produced using renewable energy, it is the cleanest and most sustainable form of hydrogen.

Benefits of Green Hydrogen:

  • Zero emissions: Green hydrogen, when used as fuel, emits water vapor, making it a clean alternative to fossil fuels that significantly contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution.
  • Renewable energy storage: Green hydrogen stores excess energy from renewable sources like solar and wind, stabilizing the grid and overcoming intermittency challenges associated with renewables.
  • High energy density: Hydrogen is a fuel that efficiently stores energy per unit weight, making it an ideal choice for long-range transportation and energy storage.
  • Energy security: The increasing reliance on green hydrogen can decrease reliance on fossil fuels and improve energy security by diversifying energy sources.
  • Economic potential: Green hydrogen technologies can generate new jobs and stimulate economic growth through investment.

National Green Hydrogen Mission

  • India aims to achieve energy independence by 2047 and Net Zero by 2070 by promoting renewable energy use across all economic sectors.
  • Green Hydrogen offers a promising alternative for transitioning to renewable energy, replacing fossil fuels in industries, clean transportation, decentralized power generation, aviation, and marine transport.

The Union Cabinet approved the National Green Hydrogen Mission on January 4, 2022, with the aim of-

  • Making India a leading producer and supplier of Green Hydrogen in the world
  • Creation of export opportunities for Green Hydrogen and its derivatives
  • Reduction in dependence on imported fossil fuels and feedstock
  • Development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities
  • Attracting investment and business opportunities for the industry
  • Creating opportunities for employment and economic development
  • Supporting R&D projects

Mission outcomes

The mission outcomes projected by 2030 are:

  • Development of green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT (Million Metric Tonne) per annum with an associated renewable energy capacity addition of about 125 GW in the country
  • Over Rs. Eight lakh crores in total investments
  • Creation of over Six lakh jobs
  • Cumulative reduction in fossil fuel imports over Rs. One lakh crore
  • Abatement of nearly 50 MMT of annual greenhouse gas emissions

Challenges and Opportunities:

  • Cost: Electrolysis remains relatively expensive, but ongoing research and innovation are driving costs down.
  • Infrastructure: Developing a robust infrastructure for green hydrogen production, storage, and distribution is essential.
  • Policy Support: Governments must provide incentives and regulatory frameworks to encourage green hydrogen adoption.


 Green hydrogen represents a beacon of hope for a cleaner, more secure, and affordable energy future. As we harness its potential, collaboration among nations, industry, and research institutions will be critical to realizing a hydrogen-powered world.

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