Recently, Cyclone Hidaya made landfall on Mafia Island, Tanzania.

More on the News:

  • The cyclone made landfall on Mafia Island, located about 130 kilometres south-southeast of Dar es Salaam, the commercial capital and largest city of Tanzania.

Tropical Cyclones


  • Tropical cyclones are intense rotating storm systems that form over warm tropical ocean waters (typically above 26°C or 79°F).
  • Warm, moist air rises rapidly from the ocean surface, creating a low-pressure zone.
  • Surrounding air rushes in to fill the low-pressure zone, also rising and cooling.
  • As the air cools, it condenses into clouds, releasing energy that further fuels the rising air and strengthens the storm.
  • The Coriolis effect (Earth’s rotation) deflects these winds, causing the storm to rotate.
  • In the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific regions, cyclones are commonly referred to as hurricanes. Meanwhile, in the Western North Pacific, they are known as typhoons.


  • Eye: A central region of calm, clear skies and very low pressure.
  • Eyewall: A surrounding ring of intense thunderstorms with very strong winds and heavy precipitation.
  • Spiral Rainbands: Outer bands of thunderstorms with heavy rain and strong winds that spiral outward from the eyewall.

Strength Classification:

  • Tropical cyclones are categorized based on their sustained wind speeds by various regional organizations like the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific.
  • Categories typically range from Tropical Depression (weakest) to Category 5 Hurricane/Super Typhoon (strongest) with increasing wind speeds and potential for damage.

Cyclones in India:

Each year, the North Indian Ocean (the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea) generates approximately 5 to 6 tropical cyclones, contributing around 7% of the world’s total cyclone activity.

Cyclone Management in India:

  • National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP): Supported by the World Bank, this project aims to bolster coastal communities’ preparedness through infrastructure development and construction of cyclone shelters.
  • Colour coding of alerts: IMD’s colour-coded system signals cyclone severity, aiding public awareness and preparedness.
  • Warning systems: The IMD’s early warning system detects cyclones early, enabling timely evacuation and damage limitation.
  • Coastal protection: Measures like mangrove plantations and sea walls mitigate cyclone impact.
  • Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Project: Enhances coastal resilience through sustainable practices, including vulnerability mapping and livelihood strategies.

About Tanzania

Location and Geography:

  • Located in East Africa, bordered by Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, DRC, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, and Indian Ocean.
  • Home to Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa’s highest peak, and Serengeti National Park.

Capital and Major Cities:

  • Capital: Dodoma (Dar es Salaam is largest city and economic center).
  • Other major cities: Dar es Salaam, Mwanza, Arusha, Zanzibar City.

Population: Population: 60+ million people.

Official Languages::Swahili and English.

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