The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is celebrating 75 years of collective defence across Europe and North America. 

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed in April 4, 1949 with the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty also known as Washington Treaty.
  • Headquarter in Brussels, Belgium 
  • The Treaty derives its authority from Article 51 of the United Nations Charter, which reaffirms the inherent right of independent states to individual or collective defence.Objective of NATO
  • It was created to provide collective  security against the Soviet Union.
  • NATO’s fundamental goal is to safeguard the Allies’ freedom and security by political and military means.

Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, stipulates that an attack on any one of its members must be met with a united response. It’s only ever been used once, after the Al-Qaeda attacks on U.S. soil in 2001. 

  • Al-Qaeda is a pan-Islamist militant organization.

Warsaw Pact (1955)

  • The Warsaw Treaty Organization (also known as the Warsaw Pact) was a political and military alliance established on May 14, 1955 between the Soviet Union and several Eastern European countries. 
  • The Soviet Union formed this alliance as a counterbalance to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).


  • NATO membership is open to “any other European state in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area”.
  • NATO was established by 12 Founding members i.e., Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • At present, NATO has 32 member countries, 30 European and 2 North American countries (Canada and USA).
  • Finland deposited its Instrument of Accession to the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 2023, becoming NATO’s 31st member country. 
  • Sweden deposited its Instrument of Accession to the North Atlantic Treaty on 7 March 2024, becoming NATO’s 32nd member country. 

NATO Military Exercise

The term NATO Military Exercise includes all exercises for which NATO is the initiating or the joint initiating authority.

ExerciseImportant Information
STEADFAST DEFENDER 2024· It is the principal NATO multi-domain exercise for 2024 and is a series of national and multinational large-scale live exercises (LIVEX) conducted across various geographical locations within SACEUR’s area of responsibility.
· It is the largest NATO exercise in decades with approximately 90,000 soldiers, sailors and airmen from 31 Allies and Sweden.
DYNAMIC MONGOOSE· Led by Allied Maritime Command, the exercise Dynamic Mongoose, enables NATO Nations to practice submarine and anti-submarine warfare involving submarines, surface units and patrol aircraft.
RAMSTEIN LEGACY· Led by Allied Air Command, Ramstein Legacy is a key NATO Integrated Air and Missile Defence (IAMD) exercise.  
· It involves combining Command and Control (C2) components with AWACS support, national airborne Air Defence (AD) and Surface Based Air and Missile Defence (SBAMD) Forces.  
· The goal is to practice tactical control of IAMD across various domains within NATO’s Tactical DataLink (TDL) network.

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LEADS 2024